Beamforming is a key 5G technology that leverages Massive MIMO technology for Active Adaptive Antenna.
Beamforming is the creation of coverage in small bundles of signals whose direction can be varied and well-oriented to the actual location of the users (adaptive).
Semiconductor chips for radio functions (RF chain / transceiver unit / RF unit) and basesband processor (or FPGA) chips, as well as artificial intelligence (AI) technology, are used in Massive MIMO technology.
Beamforming is the use of multiple radiating elements to direct a strong beam signal to a specific desired direction by adjusting the amplitude and phase variations that supply it. Those elements. The greater the number of radiating elements, the more the signal in one desired direction (main beam / main lobe) will be narrower and narrower, more directive. side lobes) are weaker, reducing interference between each other.
Depending on the antenna architecture, beamforming is divided into:
1- Analog beamforming: The radiated elements (dipoles) are supplied by a single signal or a single RF chain / transceiver unit / RF unit, so a single RF beam signal is generated and the data flow Only one data stream is sent out. The direction of the signal beam beams is easily established and controlled by the phase shifters in the RF or IF domain.
2- Digital beamforming or precoding: Each antenna radiated element or antenna port is connected by a separate RF chain // transceiver unit / RF unit (supplied by different signals). The bundling of signal beams is done by digital means in a baseband processor (or FPGA). At the same time, multiple signal beams or multiple data streams can be created and transmitted simultaneously. The disadvantage of digital beamforming is that it makes the antenna heavier, more powerful and more expensive.
3- Hybrid beamforming: Due to the disadvantages of digital beamforming above, hybrid beamforming can be developed by taking advantage of both analog beamforming and digital beamforming, in which multiple antenna elements can be connected by an RF chain and allow Broadcast multiple signal beams or multiple data streams.